By Jullien M. Almajo, Neña Grace N. Genobatin, Marianne L. Portugana, and Dina Marie G. Torres


This study aimed to review the pertinent laws regarding the protection of Habitats of Irrawaddy Dolphins in Bago City, to assess the compliance and challenges of Stakeholders in the implementation of the laws. Key informants were interviewed by the researchers for this study. Key informants said that they have a continuous study together with the University of St. La Salle to aid them to further strengthen their work for the protection Irrawaddy Dolphins, educational activities with regard to Irrawaddy Dolphins were already conducted to the residents of Bago, and the employment of “Bantay Dagat” or sea enforces in the area to apprehend those person doing illegal activities on the sea are the programs and methods done by the local government of Bago in compliance with the laws.  Short period of time per day to work, not fully established office, lack of personnel, the “ningas-kugon trait of the residents, Illegal activities of the people, and lack of strict enforcement of laws are the challenges discussed by our Key Informants in the implementation of the laws. As to the Status of Marine Protected Area (MPA) our Key Informants said that there’s already an identified area and they reserved it to restrict the fishermen to catch fish in the area, they will conduct again a rerouting to identify the boundaries of the MPA so they could place buoys around it, and finding the possible the effects of the MPA to the fishermen and for the office to plan other means to address it. 


Humans are considered as the nurturer and protector of our environment. However as time continues to lapse, conserving our natural resources become more far from mainstream. Through the years, facts can be the best proof on how our environment change due to economic growth, industrialization, and other related human interventions. It’s alarming to see how the world changes and how it affects not only the people but also the animal living with us. According to a research conducted, IUCN Organization or the International Union for Conservation of Nature,  there are now 41, 415 species in the Red List, and 16, 306 of them are endangered species of both plants and animals. “The total number of extinct species has reached 785 and a further 65 are only found in captivity or cultivation. In the last 500 years, human activity has forced over 800 species into extinction” (Kasnoff, 2019).  One of those endangered species can only be found in various countries of Southeast Asia and this is the Irrawaddy Dolphin. 

Irrawaddy Dolphin ( Orcaella brevitostrist) or “waddy” can be found in coastal areas in South and Southeast Asia. These dolphins have a bulging forehead, short beak, and a 12- 19 teeth on each side of both jaws. They are slow swimmers and generally they are very vulnerable from the people.  This specie was considered as a flagship species for the conservation of Mekong River and they play a vital role in the environment as well as to the people.(Dasgupta, 2018). These dolphins are considered as a determinant factor of a rich water resources since it has a certain requirements from its habitat that effectively reflect the health of the ecosystem for other species including humans. With 6,000 left in the wild, they are considered to be the world’s most endangered dolphin species (Yap, 2017).

Waters of Bago City is one of the only three sites known to have been inhabited by Irrawaddy Dolphins. Among this are the Municipality of Pulupandan, Negros Occidental where it is considered as critically endangered, and the Island of Palawan.  The first documented population in 2010 was estimated to have a density of about 21 individuals (Dolar, et al., 2011). However, years later, an estimated of 13 individuals had been recorded indicating a decline in the population.  Thus, their presence in the coastal areas of Bago City denotes a high existence or high productivity of their prey in the area. Later on, Bago City declared the Irrawaddy Dolphins as their Flagship Species.

The existence of the Irrawaddy gives a sort of identity to the LGU and that an apex predator existence means that the water along Bago is ecologically productive. Irrawaddy Dolphin can also be a potential source in boosting tourism. Although, it must be done very carefully since this type of dolphin is highly sensitive and vulnerable. Tourism will usually entail so many people going to the city wanting to watch dolphins. Meanwhile, it is still on a deliberation process for the city because boat traffic can disturb the habitat of this specie.

Improper disposing of water chemicals and the garbage in our wetlands are some of the circumstances why marine animals can no longer survive which specifically destroyed their habitats and the corals. In this agreement, it is important that people must observe proper methods of using our wetlands. The local and national government rigidly upholding and providing further national statutes and local ordinances to stop these illegal activities to maintain the cleanliness of the wetlands for the marine mammals to survive and to preserve their habitats.  

The decomposing pregnant Irrawaddy dolphin found in the mangrove area of Barangay Sampinit in Bago City, Negros Occidental last January 13.  (Photo courtesy of Danilo Pahilanga)

The main threats of the destruction of the habitat of Irrawaddy are pollution, captivity, Fishing nets and habitat loss. Their habitat is within the coastal areas which indicate that they can be overlapped by local’s activities. Fishing, coastal development and navigational lanes of boats used by the residents can also be a factor of habitat loss. According to a Filipino journalist, “The decline in population continues to be threatened by net entanglement, boat collision, pollution form coastal communities and nearby distillery plants, and now the proposed construction of the Negros- Guimaras- Panay Bridge” (Yap, 2017). As a result of these threats, an alliance among the Local Government Units, fisherfolk, large corporations, and the University of St. La Salle Center for Research and Engagement to initiate establishment of local resource management to conserve the Irrawaddy dolphins and the ecosystem (de la paz, et. al, 2018)

Local and National Policies

City Ordinance 11- 02 or the City Environment Code provides the environmental policies and programs that impels the city to adopt measures that will conserve the waterways, protect habitat, and encourage research to generate  livelihood for local residents while promoting conservation and protection of its coastal and marine waters. The code identifies the need for establishing marine reserves and protected areas to promote conservation efforts. 

Article 1, Section 4 of the code, under the guiding principles of environmental programs and policies, provides that environmental conservation shall be promoted through enactment and enforcement of laws in line with the laws of nature. Article V, Section 1 for Fishery Resources and Coastal Zone Management states that, “the city shall promote, conserve, protect and develop all its inland, coastal and marine waters including the resources therein and should adopt an integrated planning approach involving all sectors in the community.” Section 4 of the same article provides the prohibition of capturing dolphin, sea cow (dugong) and other endangered marine animals. Bago City had already established an ordinance and a Marine Protected Area Management Plan on 2017 to cater not only for the conservation of the Irrawaddy dolphins but also to protect other marine resources.

To ensure conservation and reproduction, Irrawaddy dolphins was declared as the flagship species of Bago City through the Fishery Reserve Ordinance. A designated area for activities such as educational and research purposes, boundary buoy/ markers shall be established. The Bantay Dagat or Barangay Officials, into which in its jurisdiction the violation is committed, tasked to strictly enforce the ordinance.

Section 24 of Ordinance No. 01, Series of 2001 or the Basic Fisheries Ordinance indicates the banning of taking, catching, selling, purchasing, possessing, transporting and Exporting of dolphins. The ordinance also provides for the delineation of fishing area and penalties for corresponding violations. 

R.A. 9147 or the “Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act or 2001,” is intended to conserve the country’s wildlife resources and their habitats for sustainability. Primarily, section 2 of the act includes conservation and protection wildlife species and their habitats to promote ecological balance and enhance biological diversity. This is enforceable for all wildlife species that includes protected areas under R.A. 7586 or the National Integrated Protected Areas System ( NIPAS) Act of 1992 that was amended into R.A. 11038.

Under Article 2 Section 22 of the said act, the determination of threatened species is provided.  In a study conducted, Irrawaddy Dolphins are considered as vulnerable to critically endangered. “It’s population are subject to the various threats associated with economic growth.” These factors include habitat loss, pollution, and persistent threat of interaction with fisheries (Smith et al., 2004).

In the miscellaneous provision of the act, section 35 stated that the Local Government Unit may adopt a flagship species which will be regarded as the conservation emblem for the Local Government Unit. As found along the coastal areas of Bago City, and for its protection and various purposes, Irrawaddy dolphin was declared as the flagship specie of The Local Government of Bago .

The Marine Protected Areas is under Article 2, section 25 of the said act. Whereas, there should be a designated critical habitats outside protected areas of NIPAS act or R.A. 7586 for the threatened species. “All designated critical habitats shall be protected, in coordination with the local government units and other concerned groups, from any form of exploitation or destruction which may be detrimental to the survival of the threatened species dependent therein.”

A joint Administrative Order known as the Implementing Rules and Regulations ( IRR) of the Republic Act 9147 was then made following the effectivity of the law. It is intended to prescribe the procedures and guidelines for the conservation of wildlife resources and their habitats which includes the Irrawaddy Dolphins, and for the appropriating funds thereof.

Whereas, section 4 of its General Provisions states that the Department of Agriculture shall have jurisdiction over all declared aquatic critical habitats, all aquatic resources, including but not limited to all fishes, aquatic plants, invertebrates and all marine mammals which includes the subject of this study but excluding dugong.

Rule 4.6 of the IRR reiterates that that “Management of the wildlife resources found in the protected areas shall be governed by R.A. 7586 (NIPAS Act); Provided that the use for scientific and/or commercial purposes, where appropriate, of aquatic and marine resources within protected areas listed under the jurisdiction of DA shall be governed by RA 9147 (Wildlife Act) and RA 8550 (Fisheries Code)”

Republic Act 10654 or the Philippine Fisheries Code on the conservation of Irrawaddy dolphins provides for the conservation, protection and sustained management of the country’s fishery and aquatic resources. The Department of Agriculture shall declare closed seasons and take conservation rehabilitation measures for rare, threatened and endangered species. In which the department is given the power to ban the fishing or taking of the mentioned classification of species that includes their offspring. The LGU’s shall also enforce all fishery laws, rules and regulations along with the municipal/ city ordinances. Furthermore, Section 102 of the code provides stiffer penalties and a stronger focus on the globally threatened marine species including sharks and dolphins. Classified under Appendix 1 in CITES (Reeves, et al., 2008), is technically covered by this section of the code. Section 101, also recognizes and supports the establishment of marine reserves and fish sanctuaries to promote marine conservation in the country.

Fisheries Administration Order No. 233: Series of 2010 that was later on amended to FOA Series of 2011 or the Aquatic Wildlife Conservation provides for the structure and individuals responsible for the conservation of the aquatic wildlife and their functions. This administrative order also includes the guidelines utilization of aquatic wildlife such as;   scientific research, commercial breeding, collection of threatened species, collecting of non- threatened and economically important species, registration of aquatic wildlife, and other relevant provisions.

International Agreements

There are several international agreements the Philippines signed into for the conservation of wildlife species, particularly on the marine animals.

 CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. It heightens the trading of specimens of wild animals and plants, especially those who are listed as endangered species animals, that people must have secure first necessary documents approved by the authorities before the exportation. 

According to the World Wildlife Fund (2014), the conservation of Irrawaddy dolphin is a priority and capturing Irrawaddy Dolphins for display in aquariums needs to end to ensure a future for the species. The CITES listed the Irrawaddy Dolphin on appendix I, it means that they are endangered and commercial trading is very much prohibited. 

The trading of animal species across borders must be strictly monitored to safeguard its decreasing population. The exploitation of animals is one of the causes why their species become endangered nowadays; they are being used by people for different purposes to profit. This international agreement serves as a basis for the member-countries in framing their national statutes to preserve the existing animal species in their country and to avoid overexploitation. In the case of Irrawaddy Dolphins, as their population is now decreasing, this international agreement adopted by the Philippines greatly helps to save the lives of the dolphins.

The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), also known as the Bonn Convention, according to DENR Int’l ENR Agreements (2019),  this agreement provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.

According to the World Wildlife Fund, in Malampaya Sound, Taytay, Palawan, Negros, and Quezon, West Palawan are the places in the Philippines where Irrawaddy Dolphins can be found. But nowadays Irrawaddy Dolphins can only be seen in Negros, particularly in the area of Bago City and Municipality of Pulupandan. There are already several reported cases of killings of Irrawaddy dolphins across the world and as well as the loss of their habitats. By-catch and drowning in gillnets, and habitat degradation and loss are the worst threats to the Irrawaddy Dolphins according to Mendoza(2017) of Maritime Their habitats serve as their place of propagation and at the same an area where they get their food for survival.

 Through this agreement signed by the Philippines, there’s always a strict monitoring of the activities of the people, with regard to the Irrawaddy Dolphins, conducted by the local and national government to prevent further destruction of their habitats and for the protection of the lives of the dolphins. 

The Convention on Wetlands also known as the Ramsar Convention is an international agreement adopted by the Philippines, according to the Ramsar Convention Secretariat (2014) this agreement serves as a framework for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. 

Negros Occidental Coastal Wetlands Conservation Area (NOCWCA) is the designated Ramsar Site in the Philippines.  According to the (2016), The Site lies along 110 kilometres of coastline of the island of Negros, covering 52 coastal districts (barangays), and three cities (Bago, Himamaylan and Kabankalan) and seven municipalities (Pulupandan, Valladolid, San Enrique, Pontevedra, Hinigaran, Binalbagan and Ilog). This is to protect the marine animals from different kinds of threats such as pollution by industrial waste and the conversion of commercial and residential uses.

Statement of the Problem

1.         How compliant are the stakeholders especially the local government unit of Bago City in the conservation of the habitat of Irrawaddy Dolphin?

2.         What are the challenges encountered in the implementation of the given policies in the conservation of the habitat of Irrawaddy Dolphin?

3.         What is the status of the proposed Marine Protected Areas for Irrawaddy Dolphins in Bago City?


A qualitative approach was used by this study and a key informant interview was used under this approach. Qualitative approach is defined as collecting and working with non-numerical data and that seeks to interpret meaning from these data that help understand social life through the study of targeted populations or places (Crossman, 2019). Interviews with the key informants who are professionals or having first-hand knowledge regarding the implementation and enforcing the policies on the conservation of Irrawaddy Dolphins were conducted by the researchers.

Three Key Informants were interviewed for this study; Key Informant No. 1 is a City Environmental officer of the LGU of Bago City.  Key Informant No. 2 is an Agricultural Officer of the same city as Key Informant number 1. Key Informant No. 3 is a marine biologist as well as researcher associate from a local university. Key Informant No. 1 and No. 2 were chosen as they are appointed to administer and execute laws for Irrawaddy Dolphins, and Key Informant number 3 was chosen as he is an active researcher of the Irrawaddy Dolphins and had already produced several studies about the Irrawaddy Dolphins.

Results and Discussion

This section presents the qualitative data gathered through an in depth interview. This study aimed to review the policies pertinent to the conservation of Irrawaddy Dolphins in the coastal area of Bago City.

The first objective of the study is to determine the compliance of the stakeholders especially the Local Government Unit of Bago City in the conservation of the habitat of Irrawaddy Dolphins.

According to Key Informant No. 1, the Local Government Unit (LGU) of Bago City has several activities particularly to enhance the awareness of the residents on the importance of Irrawaddy Dolphins. They have a continuous study together with the researchers from the USLS and local organizations to put up alternative land-based livelihood programs that will assist local fishermen to lessen their activities on the sea. So, the lesser the fishermen go to the sea, there will be lesser damage to the habitats of Irrawaddy Dolphins. Educational activities are the other methods of the LGU to protect these mammals away from harm; they have conducted some lectures in the different communities in Bago by encouraging the residents to be more active in protecting the environment. LGU’s main purpose for all those activities is to create a generation of environmental protectors that are determined to protect and preserve the environment for the coming generation. According to our Key Informant No., they have already observed that some residents are now watchful to the environment, that whenever there are sightings of Irrawaddy dolphins on the coastal areas they would immediately report it to their office.

According to Key Informant No. 2, in the established plan, their office is assigned to enforce and apprehend lawbreakers on the coastal areas. So they have assigned persons the so-called “Bantay Dagat” or sea enforcers on the coastal areas of Bago task to watch the activities of the people on the sea, and secure that all the activities done by the people are not destructive to the habitats of Irrawaddy Dolphins.

Our Key Informant No. 3 stated that in so far as the LGU is concerned, they have been responsive and cooperative with the researches that they have been conducting for years in Bago City. They already gave the LGU of Bago City their recommendations to utilize the funds appropriated for environmental conservation. Compared to the neighboring municipality of Pulupandan, Bago City is more advanced when it comes to legislation. However, the progress is slow since the management board is yet to be established.

The second objective of the study is to identify the challenges encountered in the implementation of the given policies in the conservation of the habitat of Irrawaddy Dolphin.

According to our Key Informant No. 1, one of the challenges is that their office only operates from 8 am to 5 pm. During the night time, only volunteers are acting to monitor the activities of people on the sea and also the ones reporting to the office if there are some sightings of Irrawaddy Dolphins in the sea. Plus their office is not yet fully built which means they still need some personnel, but they are hoping that their office will become a separate department and expecting additional personnel to help them this year. The illegal activities done by humans are also a problem because they create threats to the lives and habitats of the Irrawaddy Dolphins.

The ningas-kugon or “burning cogon grass” in English is a trait of the resident that they have been considered as one of the challenges they have encountered. According to, 2020, ningas-kugon is an idiom meant to illustrate that Filipinos only show great enthusiasm at the beginning of a project; however, it fades away just as quickly as the fire is extinguished even though the work is not yet finished. According to Key Informant no. 1, the residents show determination to follow those regulations only at the beginning but after a short time, they tend to disregard and violate it. This always happens to their locality that after some agreements and discussions between them and the residents, the moment the residents start living their own lives they tend to forget what they have been agreed to do and their commitment to the environment. Maybe their reason is that at the end of the day they have to make a way to survive their daily lives. That’s why they (the LGU), have a continuous campaign concerning Irrawaddy Dolphins so residents will always be reminded of their roles to the environment.

According to our Key Informant No. 2, the lack of strict enforcement of the laws is the challenge since they have no problem with budget and personnel as the LGU of Bago has already allocated enough for them. The key informant added that there’s no focal person to execute it and the reason why it is not strictly implemented and neglected. As an effect, there are still cases of deaths of Irrawaddy Dolphins even though they have an ordinance approved in 2007 to protect Irrawaddy Dolphins. The strict implementation of laws to protect Irrawaddy Dolphins is the main challenge because if they don’t, there will be no effects on the conservation efforts made by them.

Key Informant No. 3 pointed out that the shortcomings they have encountered is that the progress of implementing their program is slow since there is no specific people assigned to facilitate and focus on the said conservation management plan. There is no buoy that defines the boundary of the protected resulting to unaware fishermen to continue fishing in restricted areas. In addition, the Bantay Dagat cannot determine whether the activity is illegal or not.  Lastly, he stressed that delineation is very important and that the monitoring of the fishing gear must be strictly monitored.

The last objective is to determine the status of the proposed Marine Protected Areas for Irrawaddy Dolphins in Bago City.

Our Key Informant No. 1 discussed that there are already reserved areas for Irrawaddy Dolphins and now safeguarded by the “Bantay Dagat”. They have also placed several jackstone-type artificial wrists on the sea bed to serve as a habitat for fishes where they can copulate. Another purpose of these artificial wrists is to discouraged fishermen to catch fishes to those areas because it can cause more damages to their fishing nets once they hooked these artificial wrists below. Right now, they are asking from the University of St. La Salle to conduct again a rerouting to identify the mix and bounds of the Local Conservation Area so they could place buoys around to restrict the fishermen to come into the area.

Key Informant No. 2 said that they are concern about the effects of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA) on the fisher folks. For them, once the MPA is implemented, the fishing area for these Fishermen will be lessened and somehow the amount of fish they could harvest will also reduce. Since fishing is their primary source of livelihood to provide the needs of their families.  

According to Key Informant No. 3, there is already a management plan which they reviewed last December 2019. The recommendations were already presented. The next step of Bago City is to follow up the executive order regarding the duties of the council or management board since there is already a management plan but no management board. It was decided during the conferring that the LGU must recognize the personnel who will organize the management board and to establish rules and recommendations to hire a programmer to manage the database software.


This Section summarizes the findings, discusses the conclusion and set of recommendations drawn from the findings of the study.

Irrawaddy dolphins in general, are listed as an endangered species. It is found in the coastal waters and large rivers of Southeast Asia, Northern Australia, and Papua New Guinea. In the Philippines, Irrawaddy dolphins which are found in Palawa, Bago City and Pulupandan are considered as Critically Endangered. If nothing will be done, they may disappear from waters in the next two decades.

 Irrawaddy dolphin is important in our Ecosystem because it helps cultivate the nutrients found in the soil underwater and it is considered by the Government Agency of Bago City as an indicator of a successful Local Conservation Area. The presence of Irrawaddy dolphin signifies presence of bountiful fishes. Therefore, the duty of the government to preserve and protect the Local Conservation Area includes the duty to protect the Irrawaddy Dolphin.

This study aims to Review the Conservation Policy of the City of Bago. Acknowledging their important role to preserve and protect the Irrawaddy Dolphin from extinction, the City of Bago enacted the Local Environment  Code or the City Ordinance 11- 02, Fishery Reserve Ordinance . Under which includes the declaration of the Marine Protected Area, wherein, the Irrawaddy Dolphins are secured of a safe haven because fishermen and any vessel are restricted from entering the area. The LGU of Bago City conducted seminars as a venue to educate the people about the importance of the Irrawaddy Dolphin and the possible extinction of the specie. But there are still incidents of Death of the Irrawaddy Dolphin. There are still person caught who performs prohibited acts such as  illegal fishing in the Marine Protected Area and Active Fishing with the use of illegal  fishing gears and tools.

The people’s livelihood is the main consideration why there are still incidents of illegal fishing.  As much as they want to protect the environment, the people’s responsibility to provide for the needs of their family comes ahead. They must eat in the same way that the dolphin must eat in order to live. So it is a matter of priority for the fishermen. On the other hand, the LGU lack strict implementation and enforcement that sometimes the policy is being neglected due to lack of personnel and focal management group.

The Marine Protected Area is already identified, in fact, residents can identify it by themselves, but it is recommended to put Marker or Fishing Buoys for strict enforcement in case of unauthorized entry by fishermen.

It is recommended for the LGU to intensify the livelihood program provided for the stakeholders in order to lessen illegal fishing. Educate them consistently with other modes of earning income. Fund may also be allocated indirectly to this program. With this, they will be helping the people and the dolphin to survive. Another recommendation is for LGU  to continuously educate the people about the importance and extinction of the dolphin. To create an atmosphere of cooperation and coordination with the people, any progress and status of the Dolphins should also be communicated to the stakeholders.

It is recommended for the City of Bago to review their local legislations. They should impose higher penalties for every offense. It was noted that the penalty did not vary as to the number of times it was committed by the same violator. Penalties are an important factor for the commission of Prohibited acts. Such penalty may then be used as a source of fund to promote the welfare of the dolphin or livelihood to stakeholders.

The residents of Bago City should also cooperate and coordinate with government official. They should be responsible to report and inform any activities involving the Irrawaddy Dolphin to LGU or City Officials. They should also be open to communicate their concern to the Government so that the later can decide and act on it promptly.

After the assessment made by the researchers through in depth interview,  it was found out that local and national policies regarding the conservation or Irrawaddy Dolphins were sufficient to address the critical condition of the mentioned species. However, a strict implementation by the LGU must be enforced for the law to maximize its purpose.

About The Researchers

The researchers are JD1 students of University of St. La Salle enrolled in Legal Research class. The group is composed of four females namely, Jullien Almajo, Neña Grace Genobatin, Marriane Portugana and Dina Marie Torres. As part of their requirements, they are tasked to come up a study related to the laws of the Philippines. They are specifically tasked, to review the content of a certain law, the strength of its implementation and effectiveness.

The group chose this topic for the reason that it is relevant up to date. They found out that laws pertaining to the environment are rarely studied by the legal researchers nowadays thus; it must also be given attention. Environmental laws are as important as other existing laws in the Philippines. The group chose the Local Government Unit of Bago City to be the focus of their study as its coastal areas is known to be the habitat of Irrawaddy Dolphins which are now endangered species. Many researchers have already studied about the characteristic of Irrawaddy dolphins, its role in the ecosystem, the causes of their death, their activities and a lot more. However, there are a lot of cases that Irrawaddy Dolphins are found dead in its coastal area so the group decided to study how strong the LGU of Bago City in implementing the said law and how responsive it is to the policy.


            The completion of this study could not have been possible without the participation and assistance of whose names may not all be enumerated. Their contributions are sincerely appreciated and gratefully acknowledged. The group would like to express their earnest appreciation particularly to the following:

            Atty. Jocelle Batapa- Sigue, for her immense supervision and guidance throughout the research

            The Local Government of Bago, for being cooperative and responsive with eh requests of the researchers and for providing necessary documents needed to complete the research

            The City Environment and Management Office of Bago City and The Department of Agriculture for being hospitable and for allotting time to give insightful answers and comments during the interview.

                        The University of St. La Salle Center for Research and Engagement, for letting the group borrow related literatures and for being patient during our interview

            Above all, to the Great Almighty, the author of knowledge and wisdom, for his countless love and for the good health and wellbeing that was necessary to the group members in order to complete this thesis.


The MarineBio Conservation Society (2018).  Irrawaddy Dolphins, Orcaella brevirostris

Earth Island Institute Philippines (2019). Save the Irrawaddy Dolphins

DENR Int’l ENR Agreements (2019),  Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention / CMS)

Mendoza (2017), Irrawaddy Dolphins in the Philippines,

World Wildlife Fund (2014), A New Deal for Whales and Dolphins,

Ramsar Convention Secretariat (2014), The Ramsar Secretariat › the-ramsar-secretariat (2016), Philippines names Negros Occidental Coastal Wetlands Conservation Area as a Ramsar Site (2019), 12 Annoying Attitudes of Filipinos We Need To Get Rid Of,

Spectacular Dolphins Throughout Our World

First increase in Mekong River Irrawaddy dolphins in 20 years


Republic Act No. 9147

Republic Act No. 8550

Fisheries Administrative Order

Republic Act No. 7586

Establishing the list of Terrestrial threatened species and their categories, and the list of other wildlife species pursuant to Republic Act No. 9147

Irrawaddy Dolphins in the Philippines

Negrenses urged to report sightings of Irrawaddy dolphin

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